Has the Gender Revolution Stalled?


  • Paula England New York University
  • Ivan Privalko Economic and Social Research Institute
  • Andrew Levine New York University


We examine change in multiple indicators of gender inequality for the period of 1970 to 2018 for the United States, and post-1990 data on some of those indicators for the Republic of Ireland. We consider gender inequality and its trend over time in educational attainment, employment, fields of study in higher education, occupations, and earnings. We conclude that there has been dramatic progress in movement toward gender equality, but, in recent decades, change has slowed, and, on some indicators, stalled entirely. The slowdown on some indicators and stall on others suggests that further movement toward gender equality will only occur if there is substantial institutional and cultural change, such as an increase in men’s participation in household and care work, governmental provision of childcare, and adoption by employers of policies that reduce gender discrimination and help both men and women combine jobs with family care responsibilities.